|"If I understand Mark correctly, I can easily remove the top covers from my Stromberg carbs. I was wondering if this could be done without affecting anything inside that I should be overly concerned about."
Yes, the top covers can be removed and reinstalled without upsetting anything, provided that the vacuum valves were correctly oriented. If not, then it's usually necessary to readjust the mixture needles and re-synchronize the carbs -- normally a 5-15 minute job if you have the special tool and an air flow measuring device such as a Unisyn.
"I want to dress up mine by trying to clean and polish them. I didn't want to take anything apart if it would create a problem for me. Would the dampening oil come out or does that area stay in place when removing the covers?"
The damping oil reposes in a steel cylinder that's part of each carb's vacuum valve and will not drain out when the covers are removed. At worst you'd lose a couple of drops from each of the damper rods. But as damper oil is normally plain old 20W50, it's easy to come by.
IMHO the covers look much better when polished, and I did a fair amount of polishing to the carbs currently on my car before installing them. The alloy they used doesn't seem to take a really bright shine, but you can get a fair one without too much effort.